Digital support for teaching as a design science

Overview

Teaching is changing. It is no longer simply about passing on knowledge to the next generation. Teachers in the 21st century, in all educational sectors, have to cope with an ever-changing cultural and technological environment. Teaching is now a design science. Like other design professionals - architects, engineers, town planners, programmers – teachers have to work out creative and evidence-based ways of improving what they do. But teaching is not treated as a design profession.

Every day, teachers design and test new ways of teaching, using learning technology to help their learners. But their discoveries remain local. By representing and communicating their best ideas as structured pedagogical patterns, teachers could develop this vital professional knowledge collectively.

Teacher professional development has not embedded in the teacher’s everyday role the idea that they could discover something worth communicating to other teachers, or build on each others’ ideas. Could the culture change?

In this MOOC week I'd like to debate and explore this issue with you. A 21st century education system needs teachers who work collaboratively to design effective and innovative teaching. Can digital technologies help teachers design effective 'pedagogical patterns' (or 'learning designs', or 'lesson plans', or 'teaching -learning activity sequences')?

Technology can certainly provide several useful tools that would help teachers to collaborate on pedagogic innovation:

An ontology for describing a pedagogical pattern in a way that captures the effectiveness of the pedagogy and distinguishes it from similar, but less effective ones

Open educational resources that can be linked into many different kinds of student activity, online, or in class

A repository of pedagogical patterns, linked to teachers' own learning outcomes, that can be bowsed, downloaded, customised, tested, improved, and re-published

Some strongly worded propositions

We don't have long, so I'll begin by putting my cards on the table, and offering some statements, pulling no punches, that build up the overall case:

that teachers need and deserve better digital support to help them take learning technologies into more interesting terrain than has been explored so far


Here are four propositions that I'd like to cover over the course of the week, with the relevant resources and links that elaborate each one.

1. The fundamental nature of the learning process in formal education is not likely to change much, but the means by which we do it will

• Powerpoint slides to animate the Conversational Framework as an account of the learning process

2. Digital technologies have much to offer formal education, but have been badly under-exploited so far, so we must look to teachers to drive more interesting forms of pedagogy using technology

• Apps for numeracy compared with other web resources

3. Teachers, like other design professionals, need to build on each others' best ideas for how to teach to intended learning outcomes

• Collecting Pedagogical Patterns – a website for exchanging, designing and sharing your best ideas of ways of helping learners achieve a given learning outcome

• Video on how to use the Pedagogical Patterns Collector

4. The digital support teachers need includes (i) an ontology for pedagogical patterns; (ii) a user-oriented interface for expressing pedagogic ideas; (iii) a common repository where pedagogical patterns can be published, organised, and accessed; (iv) a knowledge base that is capable of responding to the community of users; (v) an advice and guidance wiki that the teaching community can develop, and the design tool can draw upon for advice on designs.

• Links to the url for downloading the Learning Designer (or should that be the 'Teaching Designer'.

Suggested readings

- Laurillard et al - JCAL paper
- Morris and Hiebert paper – Ed Reseacher
- Laurillard book (just published) – Ch 1

Suggested activities

For each statement, read through the introduction, try working with the resources suggested, then contribute to the wikispace to challenge the statement, ask questions, offer further arguments, and suggest other relevant resources.

At the end of the week I will attempt to summarise the degree of overall agreement/disagreement with the four statements above, and any other key issues raised.

Comments

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Great summary of Design thinking on last week's live Twitter event #lrnchat.

http://davidkelly.me/2012/04/refelctions-on-lrnchat-design-thinking/ [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

It could be an operating system thing or maybe linked to the book itself. Here's another link

http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-20032775-1.html

Noting that your source is an e-book is good too :) [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Thanks for the Kindle link. Unfortunately, it doesn't work on my iPad. Its weird, because some of the Kindle books do show page numbers, but this one doesn't. I think I will have to work out an approximate page number and make a note on the References page that it is from an e-book.
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Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Hi, Deb, here's one answer about Kindle page #s. Hope this helps?
http://www.pcpro.co.uk/blogs/2011/02/23/how-to-find-real-page-numbers-on-the-kindle/ [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

That's good to know debseed -I hope you'll send me any pattern you create - we need more good ones! [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

So glad I looked at the mooc this week. i downloaded 'Teaching as a Design Science', and have been very busy over the last couple of days revising my Masters action research project, which is looking at the effectiveness of using video podcasts to teach spreadsheet use and application to accounting students. It now refers to a lot of 'design for learning', 'pedagogical patterns' and TCC/TPC/TMC etc, I will be using the pedagogical pattern template to evaluate the teaching activities using traditional methods and digital methods. If I'm feeling brave I might even share them.

So, thank you Diana. You might just have saved my bacon!

Ps. Does anyone know how to cite from a Kindle book that only has 'locations', not page numbers :(

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Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Shukie, the resources that are links are in the post I sent on 20 April, headed 'Digital support.... - Resources'.
Yesterday I re-sent the files to the organisers as they said they could make them available, so I hope that will happen.
They also suggested they could host a live webinar next week, as we were not able to do it last week - I've yet to hear when that will be but I guess it will be posted soon.
Sorry for all these difficulties - largely deriving from my internet problems last week. I thought it was a miracle that so many good posts were contributed, in spite of all that.

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Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Hi Kevin

I still can't find the resources, so don't fel that your posts where wasted! If you have chance, could you add them in a new comment please?

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Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Very sorry about the glitch on the link. Stupid mistake - thank you for pointing it out.
Diana [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Links. Again. The link is http://www.number-sense.co.uk/. Need a hyphen in the middle. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

OK, found the links in another comment. Wish I could delete these two comments of mine. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Reflections on the conversation...

Thanks to everyone who participated for these discussions. The conversation has taken the issues from the starting point I offered to address also the broader context of what it would mean for teaching to be practiced as a design science. Here is a precis of some of the points you made that I'll certainly build on in future:
1. The big problem is the lack of time provided for inservice in methods and practises related to computer based learning.
2. There needs to be a resource that informs us of the available resources and technologies we can use.
3. We need a 'rubbish mark' to help the 'crap detection' process as we search through the technology resources available for those that actually contribute to the learning process.
4. Pedagogical innovation should be open to everyone not just a select group of 'professional' educators.
5. We need a fundamental shift to see 'teacher-student' as a continuum or interchangeable role rather than a discrete category or otherness.
6. As for any design professional, the teacher plays many other roles as well - social worker and manager are among those.
7. Teaching as a design profession is not really about technology. It's about having a design mindset, a process or framework for designing an optimal learning environment and optimal learning products.
The idea of 'teaching being a design science' is too esoteric for many teachers. Teachers are seen, by the government, as deliverers of what the state decides they should deliver. So there is much to be said for promoting the idea of teaching as a design science. It would breathe new life and thought into what the profession entails. It would be looking at the profession through a different lens and would suggest personal teaching, just as we are currently encouraged to promote personal learning in students.

Thanks so much for your part in the conversation. Please follow up by email if you'd like to take it further. This is just the beginning, I hope!
Diana
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Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Sorry about the nuts and bolts issue, but it seems that the links to resources were stripped out of http://change.mooc.ca/post/639, at least for Chrome and Safari. Diane asks us to follow the links, and others thank her for the resources, but they seem unavailable to me. Any pointers to

• Powerpoint slides to animate the Conversational Framework
• Apps for numeracy compared with other web resources
• Collecting Pedagogical Patterns – a website for exchanging,
• Video on how to use the Pedagogical Patterns Collector
• Links to the url for downloading the Learning Designer
- Laurillard et al - JCAL paper
- Morris and Hiebert paper – Ed Reseacher
- Laurillard book (just published) – Ch 1

would be greatly appreciated. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Great to have the resources! I was wondering what had happened there.
I talked to some colleagues about teaching being a design science, and many seemed to think it too esoteric. They don't understand some of the implications as right now, in the province of B.C., teachers are seen, by the government, as deliverers of what the province decides they should deliver.
Although it partly would be using new definitions to describe traditional teaching practise, it would breathe new life and thought into what the profession entails. It would be looking at the profession through a different lens and would suggest personal teaching, just as we are currently encouraged to promote personal learning in students.
The initial study concerning this change would have to be on cost effectiveness for it to fly in many political jurisdictions. Already, some districts are realizing cost savings by using online textbooks rather than printed books. By posting resources and assignments on MOODLE, I do far less photocopying than my peers. These are just a few points to push for greater understanding of teaching as design science.
Students do not forget to put their name on a paper. They don't lose sheets of paper. So there is efficiency here for the teacher. Quizzes and tests are marked for immediate feedback to the students. All marks are collated immediately and if parents ask for grades, I encourage them to look at their child's MOODLE account. Saves teacher time and effort.
So, I believe there is much to be said for promoting the idea of teaching as a design science because of the benefits that will accrue. If it causes more targetted support for using resources more efficiently and a recognition of the need to support technological efficiency it would be very worthwhile. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

One of the most exciting forms of expression I've seen online in the last two years is, ironically, the ability to draw with paper and pen. See RSAnimate on TED for examples. People who can tell well-articulated stories with good illustrations, done by hand, resonate with me just as much or more than the high-end computer animations that one can make now.

Again, it's all about DESIGN. What is the task? What is the point of the task? Are we using the right tools (digital or not) to accomplish the task? [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

And they should be recruiting, hiring and promoting with a design skill set as a pre-requisite! [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

P.S., once again it is a matter of how the presentation was designed (interactive/passive) not a matter of the delivery method (virtual/in-person). This is an argument I have used repeatedly with clients/coworkers who don't buy into e-learning simply because they have experienced poorly-designed e-learning in the past. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

It would be interesting to analyze what happens in live mooc sessions regarding presenter:participant ratios of 'talk time'.

Over the past two years of my experience, there were certainly some presenters who invited/inspired considerable participation in the backchannel or on the whiteboard. And there were others who performed a more traditional talking head/bullet point presentation that either a) didn't invite or inspire participation or b) inspired participation on other topics in the backchannel as a recourse against the main presentation not sustaining interest. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

To me, the issue of looking at teaching as a design profession is not about technology at all. It's about having a design mindset, a process or framework for designing an optimal learning environment and optimal learning products.

If the product happens to be designed using digital technology, that's great but not necessary. Example: teaching math, biology and chemistry by building a school garden. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Digital support for teaching as a design science - Resources

This post provides the links to the web resources mentioned in the previous post, that relate to what was in the Introduction.

Here are the four propositions I wanted to cover over the course of the week, with the relevant resources and links that elaborate each one.

Proposition 1
1. The fundamental nature of the learning process in formal education is not likely to change much, but the means by which we do it will.
Resources 1
See Chapter 4: What it takes to learn, in Laurillard (2012) Teaching as a Design Science - see below.

Proposition 2
2. Digital technologies have much to offer formal education, but have been badly under-exploited so far, so we must look to teachers to drive more interesting forms of pedagogy using technology
Resources 2
• www.numbersense.co.uk - look at the Time program and compare with other games and apps for helping people learn to tell the time. If the program models the movement of the hands on the clockface, then it can give useful feedback, not just right/wrong but 'this is the time you made'. This helps learners work out how to improve their answer. It is more like the feedback we get from the world as we try to learn from it. Digital technologies can provide small models of the world for learners to interact with. They can also adapt to learner needs – pace, content, level of difficulty – but rarely do so. The most common format is multiple choice with randomly generated tasks – no help for learning.

Proposition 3
3. Teachers, like other design professionals, need to build on each others' best ideas for how to teach to intended learning outcomes. The Pedagogical Patterns Colletor is a website for exchanging, designing and sharing your best ideas of ways of helping learners achieve a given learning outcome
Resources 3
• At http://tinyurl.com/ppcollector3 try browsing and adapting existing patterns, or designing your own.
• Video available from initial page of the Pedagogical Patterns Collector

Proposition 4
4. The digital support teachers need includes (i) an ontology for pedagogical patterns; (ii) a user-oriented interface for expressing pedagogic ideas; (iii) a common repository where pedagogical patterns can be published, organised, and accessed; (iv) a knowledge base that is capable of responding to the community of users; (v) an advice and guidance wiki that the teaching community can develop, and the design tool can draw upon for advice on designs.
Resources 4
Links to the url for downloading the Learning Designer:
Learning Designer for Windows:
• http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~dionisis/LDSE/downloads/download.php?win3-leeds
Learning Designer for Mac/Linux:
• http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~dionisis/LDSE/downloads/download.php?mac3-leeds
The Learning Design Support Environment project website
• https://sites.google.com/a/lkl.ac.uk/ldse/Home

Suggested readings
Laurillard, D., Charlton, P., Craft, B., Dimakopoulos, D., Ljubojevic, D., Magoulas, G., . . . Whittlestone, K. (2012). A constructionist learning environment for teachers to model learning designs Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, (Accepted) - describes the research on the 'Learning Designer' tool for teachers.

Morris, A., & Hiebert, J. (2011). Creating Shared Instructional Products : An Alternative Approach to Improving Teaching. Educational Researcher, 40(1), 5-14. – An Educational Reseacher paper proposing a teacher community for sharing instructional products

Laurillard chapter (2012) – Chapter 1 of Laurillard, D (2012) 'Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology', New York: Routledge.
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Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

That mirrors experiences I have had with students, where online peer evaluation and collaborative projects did take place - when I have tried similar in the calssroom the tendency is to talk about the weekend, or TV or something other - not through a tendency to distraction, but I suspect through a fear of being critical in a one to one space.
The asynchronous discussion spaces we have are on a VLE, but they are without doubt the best places to go to se the thoughts o students expanded and with illustarted examples (links, photographs and other digital artefacts) taht wouldn't (couldn't) happen in a session.

Given taht much of this is down to personal experiences and preferences, the challenge seems to be around the ways in which different approaches can be facilitated without excluding sections of the learning community. Many people don't use social media for instance, so by linking discussion through social media they become excluded.
I think one thing that seems to be significant too is the need for diffrent forms of creativity, the need for an online presence to match the presence that characterises face to face learning. Creating videos, images, podcasts and spaces that appeal is a set of learned skills that will need encouraging - all in all, its the transformation that seems so massive! Ideas are exciting, and the best teaching sitautions carry with them a sense of shared exploration and of excitement, a tangible sense of a journey. Making that happen online is clearly possible, it attracts such traffic and explosions of 'trending' topicality. what do we all have to teach each other to ensure that can identify this excitement as well as offering accountability and vision? The collaborative spaces presented offer some solution, though I can't help thinking that it is hard to fix any such space, and that they will arrive, prosper and subsequently dissolve organically.
Not wanting that to sound pessimistic, but it seems to be a character of the online space that 'here today, gone tomorrow' is part of a universal psyche - at least virtually.

Is the first chapter of the new book available on Change11 somewhere by the way? I'd like to read it [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Last catch-up point:

If teaching is a design science, what are the artefacts - good question:
"What are the artifacts created that can be evaluated? The digital lesson is one answer, but how are they evaluated?" - the lesson plan, or 'pedagogical pattern' designed in advance is one artefact, yes. It may or may not be digital, in the sense that it may be a conventional design, but it could still be expressed digitally. This is what we explored in the 'Learning Design Support Environment' project. I sent in the links last week, but I think this was another problem with my internet link as what is in the intro here is the first draft I sent in two weeks ago, and not the updated version. So I'll make that my next post.

Is it because they make meaning to the students? Is it because students can interpet better? - yes sort of, but the real value of the lesson design (or lab design, or fieldwork design, or homework design) is that it works for the students. So what is evaluated is the design in action - what happens in the classroom, or online, or at home. So all the aspects of the design process listed by brainysmurf apply.
So teaching is a design science in the sense that as teachers we design a plan with a rationale and expected outcome, then we test it out with students, see how it works or not, refine the design, and try again... and so on.

"Part of the profession is social worker and manager" - certainly, the teacher has many skills other than design, but that's true of an architect too, the equivalent being client relations and project manager, I guess, plus many other things. But ACKNOWLEDGE it as a design profession too - that's my plea - along with all that follows. Which brings us back to the first point raised in this discussion, that teachers need time for this. And politicians, school governors, quality inspectors, etc should acknowledge that if they want innovation from teachers. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

I do like the comments about the importance of creativity and collaboration, such as the idea of the "fundamental shift to see teacher-student as a continuum or interchangeable role rather than a discrete category or otherness."

This point is entirely independent of any technology, but is certainly served by technology. I was intrigued to discover, for example, that online tutorials created an exact inverse of the tutor-student talk time for the face-to-face version. In those I analysed there was a 10:1 ratio of student words to teacher words online, and a 1:10 ratio of student time talking to teacher time talking in the real time classroom, for similar tutor group sizes. The online technology, partly because it is asynchronous - the same shift does not happen in my experience in synchronous online conferences - changes the power relation and makes teachers and students much more like peers in a mutual exploration of ideas.

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Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

This is an important point:
" I don't think this reduces the needs for discussion on pedagogical innovation, it just means that it is open to everyone not jsut a select group of professional 'educators.'"

Exactly. How could we ever hope to explore the wonderful opportunities offered by digital technologies if we didn't involve all teachers everywhere? Teachers are the people closest to students, who see every day their struggles, and who figure out ways of helping them. But digital technologies and educational software programs are rarely designed by teachers or even 'professional educators' - at least not by anyone who watches learners trying to learn from such things!

Yes the 'www.designthinkingforeducators.com' site is full of good things. But look at how that thinking is addressed directly to learners, not to teachers. Imagine posing all those questions to teachers, e.g. I have a challenge. How do I approach it? I have an idea. How do I build it? etc... and imagine an approach to learning technologies that built something for teachers that would help them answer those questions, no matter what kind of subject they teach. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Hello Professor Laurillard

I think the Rubbish mark would be a useful addition! Howard Rhengold's earlier session on Change11 discussed 'crap detection' and I took that to my calss intsnatly as it answerreed so much of what the issues are at the heart of many uses of the web in research. What is telling though, is that these are the same skills as previously in many ways, the ability to source well and add an individua, linternalised quality control system that is able to develop with the shifts in the way information is presented.
The speed of change, the rapidity of knowledge as a fast flowing river, means that it is the focus on how people learn that is central and the role of pedagogy should surely then be part of helping develop that, rather than having stratgies that hope to fix the pedgaogy, and that will be continually undone through technological developments and patterns of interaction. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Sorry, Diana, I was thinking specifically of a central Canadian context here where one generally doesn't get into teacher's college without high school grades in the 90s, a bachelor's degree and lots of experience and strong references to go with it. The one exception is teaching in the trades, where field experience can be coupled with a college diploma (Bachelor's not required).

It's something of a low-status profession as far as entry salaries are concerned but a seasoned teacher (esp. in high school, who are paid more than primary/junior) can be making upwards of $80K/yr. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Yes these are all good points, though I'm not so sure about these two:
"- They are typically "A" students in the command-and-control model.
- They are likely to teach how they were taught."
I suspect that teaching being a low status profession means that it does not get the A students, necessarily - they all seem to go into finance these days. As a student I used to run the full gamut of grades, following my interests and being completely 'cue-deaf' (a useful term from the 70s) to what I would be assessed on. That made me fascinated, as a teacher and researcher, to hear about how my students were thinking about what they were learning. In my first book I related how I began by teaching the way I was taught (filling the blackboard with maths equations) and rapidly discovered how useless that was, and much more use it was to listen to how the students talked about how they were trying to solve a problem. I suspect a lot of teachers are like that - they do enjoy the process of engaging with their students and figuring out ways of helping them. If they rely on the tried and tested methods, that's lack of confidence, and the oppression of the quality inspector who has a checklist of what it takes to be a good teacher.

But you list a powerful set of factors that work against innovation. That's partly why I think we have to focus on teachers, and what they need if they are to act as innovators. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

good point about the range of design required BrainySmurf, and alongside Loewenbl's comment about the additional roles - social worker...also motivational coach, mentor, support worker, accommodation advisor etc etc! I'm wondering, are the learning designers and the current in-house group the same people?
The teachers as resistance to change is regularly made, and in essence I see that if technology is going to be used more effectively it can't be at the expense of current teachers and in expectation of a whole new cohort - the ways that edeucators oppearting across different theoretical perspectives and with varied pedagogical approaches, have developed over years of perople's careers and incorporate their cahnging interests and expertise.
I don't think there is a single (or even easily identified multitude) of pedagogical approaches that sit nicely with each theory and that allow for a simple transference into technology based applications - a critical theory background utilising constructivist ideas - discussion, projects, and what have you is more than just a textbook response; it is a blend of a teacher's lived experiences and choices made from those experiences.
I was interested in the idea of an ontology for describing pedagogic patterns - not entirely sure how that would look, but it seems taht it would need to enegender as great a pattern of thought as does current practice in face to face encounters.
At times I feel like I am constantly caught between wanting to embrace technological approaches, and not being seen as someone that is trying to 'throw out the baby with the bath water'. Inpart, I think to do this requires an equally transformative position in how we see teaching and learning, who does it, in what ways and to what ends.

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Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Two critical issues here:
"The main issue is the lack of time provided for inservice in methods and practises related to computer based learning."
- this is more important than any other, I think. Teachers' workload is so constrained by the external forces that drive what happens in a school, that they have no autonomy. Innovation is impossible without that. If they had a reasonable amount of protected time for their own development they could do so much with what is already around.

"There needs to be a resource that informs us of the available resources and technologies we can use."
- yes the good resources are not easy to find and it is easy to find rubbish. So with limited time available a teacher will be easily disillusioned. There has been talk in the UK over the years of 'kite-marking' or similar approaches, but I doubt we know enough to give an authoritative kite-marking that would be agreed by everyone. We could more easily give a 'rubbish-marking' I suspect! But borrowing models from other domains of user reviews, perhaps, could work. There are such resource sites, but they are not very well organised, and there is not much discipline about the peer review. This is where governments could do some useful organisation and leadership - far more use than interfering with pedagogy. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

First, sincere apologies that I've not been online this last week. In Cuba for a research meeting (it's a great place to do serious educational research), but internet connectivity hardly worked for the purpose of joining in here.

The charm of Cuba is that it has a 'University of the Pedagogical Sciences', which I'd not come across before, situated in a park called 'The city of schools', where there are lots of schools close to the university. And the teachers I met were very open-minded, interesting, and making the best use they could of technology.

Will now try to catch up on the dialogue so far, albeit belatedly. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

But perhaps it is a moot point about how much of the profession is a design science. The fact that more digital support is needed for that aspect of the profession, is certainly valid. A supporter of that position in a local High School has been ignored in spite of the way he has assisted in flipped classrooms and technological improvements for teachers. Yet, when the Minister of Education came to the school, this teacher was held up as an example of how well the system is working. Lip service, but no real support. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

In my experience, teaching as a design profession includes the design of many products (curricula, physical/virtual learning spaces, lessons, examples, models, aids, guides and assessment tools).

The actual design functions, for any of the above products, include:
- fully analysing the needs of the audience and the objectives of the products you want to create
- developing a range of possible solutions
- reviewing previous designs (one's own or others' ) for inspiration and to borrow elements that fit the new design
- testing the possibilities, refining the design
- using tools and technologies to create the products

I also think that showing students how to design is a fantastic idea. See this text Nuffield Design and Technology for design examples related to agriculture, textiles, mechanics and other topics:
http://books.google.ca/books/about/Nuffield_design_technology.html?id=iT0gPwAACAAJ&redir_esc=y
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Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Some aspects of teaching make it a design profession but there are some difficulties with applying all of the elements of design terminology to the profession. As someone who has not delved fully into the definitions I would initially ask: What are the artifacts created that can be evaluated? The digital lessons is one answer, but how are they evaluated? Is it because they make meaning to the students? Is it because students can interpet better?
Or is it the job of a teacher to show students how to design?
Part of the profession is social worker and manager.
The preparation for making meaning so that students can make meaning can be construed as design.
Just some thoughts. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Thanks, shukie, this is a fundamental shift to see teacher-student as a continuum or interchangeable role rather than a discrete category or otherness.

I also appreciate the tie back to earlier content in this course about pushing forward on Cs other than consume (connect, create, contribute and, in my opinion, commit).

http://brainysmurf1234.wordpress.com/2011/10/11/the-5-cs-consume-connect-create-contribute-and-commit/ [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Some interesting points made and the focus on the teacher remains a significant one. I liked the possibilities offered by collaborative spaces and shared developments. I was drawn to HowardJ's comments that refelect the changing in the fundamental patterns of how people learn that will perhaps replace the very fixed notions of teachers and studnets themselves. It is not mereley the pedagogoies that are not maximiing the affordances of the technologies, but the structures that delineate teachers FROM students. Shared spaces and collaborative design can be equally well done through the involvement of a range of individuals and groups and the need for an established teacher becomes diminished. The Freirean concept of teacher-student being a shifting intercahnge is possoble, and now more than ever necessary. I don't think this reduces the needs for discussion on pedagogical innovation, it just means that it is open to everyone not jsut a select group of professional 'educators.'
Our students have just completed projects where they selected something they wanted to share, to teach, and then selected technologies to do that with - they are not on a technology course - and the range of materials was fascinating, what they chose refelected largely how they seem themselves, and as HowardJ specifies, who they 'want to become'. Social media was popular, but for mature stuidenst the use of websites gave them opportunity to design something they had some fear of and wanted to conquer - become producers instead of always consumers. Progress seems to indicate that involvement is a nnecessary part of lkearning and as such the old distinction between teacher-student seems to be certain to dissolve, or at least radically transform.
Great to see you on here Professor Laurillard [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Serendipity strikes again! A site tweeted by Clark Quinn as the topic of tonight's #lrnchat

http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/ [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

An excellent article and counterpoint to individual excellence as the foundation for learning. Thanks for sharing! I've cross-pollinated it on the #cck12 Daily as well. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

A great article about this and how the U.S. tries to borrow from Finland without realizing they need a philosophical and political change in order to perform as well as Finnish schools do. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/what-the-us-cant-learn-from-finland-about-ed-reform/2012/04/16/gIQAGIvVMT_blog.html
This may also be true about thinking of teaching as a design profession. In that respect, Finland is far closer to that concept.
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Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Well said! I forgot to add how pleased I was to hear of teaching thought of as a design profession, with which I wholeheartedly agree after working on a professional design certification a decade after getting my teaching degree.

Also found this post on questions that seemed relevant to the culture of teaching.
http://myprobetothink.wordpress.com/2012/03/24/to-ask-or-not-to-ask-this-is-the-question/

Do we train and recruit teachers who ask good questions? Not likely. Administrators don't like too many questions. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

Hi Professor Laurillard;
You said; "A 21st century education system needs teachers who work collaboratively to design effective and innovative teaching." I would suggest that in addition to technological tools (which I agree are sorely needed), we also need to integrate these tools with new social psychological conceptual tools. Teaching is still dominated by the implicit idea that knowledge is in our heads, we can understand a student by looking at the knowledge they possess, and teachers have everything they need within the classroom walls. From a design perspective, I believe learning and collaboration are two sides of a coin that are described by Vygotsky's zone of proximal development; focusing not on who a student (or teacher) is, but in who they are becoming and the activity that will get them to that point. To be in the "zone", you need support to confidently and collaboratively get out ahead of your own ability. To be successful, the design of digital tools and the environments in which they are used should help and support us to get out ahead of ourselves. Teaching is not only changing, teaching and learning is change; a process of becoming someone different. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

This is excellent and fits with things I've been musing about for awhile. I think we have to look at what happens in teacher education, both pre-service and in-service:

- Most teachers are successful products of traditional, formal education (sage on stage).
- They are typically "A" students in the command-and-control model.
- They are likely to teach how they were taught.
- Classrooms are often silos. They don't inspire collaboration among teaching peers.
- Staff rooms are breeding grounds for gossip and complaints, fatigue and stress. Again, not a source of inspiration or collaboration.
- Professional development (PD) days for teachers are treated as separate from the daily work of teaching. There is little culture of ongoing learning as part of the daily role of the teacher.
- Teachers are expected to know it all (or at least stay a chapter ahead of the students). What about student-centred or student-driven design?

These factors, and likely many more, do not bode well for a teacher being supported as an innovator, explorer, know mad or creator. Rather, the system perpetuates regurgitators. Not sure how we begin to unpack that, especially when seasoned folks like loewenbl above are the exception in digital literacy, not the rule. [Comment] [Permalink] []

Re: Digital support for teaching as a design science

I concur with the need for a more rational and less haphazard approach to informing teachers about the most effective uses of digital learning within a classroom. I have had to inform myself about MOODLE and know its value and some of its limitations. Other teachers on my staff do not use it because they perhaps are not as venturesome or are satisfied with the more traditional pedagogies. If others wish to use it, I inform and assist with it. I have done the same for other computer based learning opportunities as well, including game based learning for languages.
The main issue is the lack of time provided for inservice in methods and practises related to computer based learning. Teachers who take a workshop but are not followed up with peer coaching and support, will soon fall back on the tried and true methods. This is common regardless of the new technique, method, etc.
Currently the biggest use of computers is for word processing and online research. Many of the old ideas about writing and research need to be re-evaluted in order to make this use of technology more effective. This is not being done.
Teachers also shy away from game based learning that, in fact, can give the students greater understanding of a concept than the textbook. One example is Grade 7 Social Studies about Egypt. The game Pharoah comes with a book that explains all aspects of culture, economics, religion, resources, agriculture, etc. that a student needs to know in order to master the game. Students who play this know all the information required of the course. Getting to the end of the game means mastery of all the information. More is learned than from the textbook.
There are some schools that now use this game and others for this purpose, but many teachers do not know this, and do not know it is out there. There needs to be a resource that informs us of the available resources and technologies we can use.
This is true for the content of the resources but is much more necessary for inservice into how the software and hardware work together. Learning how a program or application works is often seen as 'extra work' by teachers. They tell me 'I don't want to learn another program that will be obsolete in two years' This is partly because they often have to grapple with it on their own time. Some computer literate teachers on my staff won't learn MOODLE because they think it won't be around in a few years. It is fortunate for me because if they all used moodle I would not have as much access to the computer lab.
Access to digital learning is another big concept. Some schools shy away from iphones, ipads, androids, and other personal devices in a school because of problems they might generate. Other schools encourage them and use them as part of the learning. What do those schools know and do that makes it work for them? So far, I don't know, but I would like to.
I am an older experienced teacher close to retiring, and yet I use more current technology in my school than any of the younger teachers. Why is that? I was sure that newer teachers would be more versed in new digital methods and technologies.
These are some thoughts after a day of teaching. Not completely thought out, just blogged off the top of my head from years of thinking. Hopefully there is something here that relates positiviely to the discussion.l [Comment] [Permalink] []

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